Ecole Nationale de l’Aviation Civile (ENAC) est l’unique exemple d’une seule école proposant une offre de formations et d’activités complètes destinées au domaine aéronautique et en particulier au secteur du transport aérien.
Pour les passionnés de l’aéronautique, l’ENAC assure la formation initiale et le perfectionnement des cadres et principaux acteurs du domaine de l’aéronautique civile : Ingénieur ENAC, Masters of Sciences, Mastères Spécialisés, Pilote, Contrôleur aérien,… en s’appuyant sur une recherche scientifique dans les systèmes de transport aériens et de navigation innovants.
Ouverte sur l'international, l'ENAC a développé de nombreux partenariats avec des universités étrangères pour les échanges académiques, des doubles diplômes ou des formations implantées à l'étranger.
En particulier l'ENAC propose les formations supérieurs suivantes
- Ingénieur ENAC
- 3 Masters of science en anglais) : MSC ASNAT, MSC IATOM, MSC IATSED
- 7 mastères spécialisés (en anglais) : MS APM, MS ANSEO, MS ATM, MS AM, MS ASAA, MS SMA, MS UASSM
L’ENAC est partenaire de nombreux organismes de recherche - ONERA, TESA,
IRT AESE, DGAC DTI, au travers de projets ou d’équipes de recherche. Les
activités de recherche ENAC se répartissent dans 6 domaines :
• Interface Homme Machine, Informatique
• Modélisation, Mathématiques Appliqués
• Communication, Navigation et Surveillance
• Intégration Systèmes
Tél: 05 62 17 40 00afficher le N°
7 av. Edouard-Belin CS 54005
L’ingénieur ENAC intervient dans les domaines de la conception, du développement et de l’exploitation des systèmes aéronautiques ou de services dans le transport aérien. Cette formation d'ingénieur aéronautique requiert un ensemble de connaissances scientifiques et techniques d’une part, économiques, sociales et humaines d’autre part. Son activité s’exerce en premier lieu dans l’industrie aérospatiale (concepteurs et constructeurs de systèmes électroniques et informatiques aérospatiaux), dans le transport aérien (compagnies aériennes, aéroports), dans l’administration de l’aviation civile (DGAC) et dans de multiples secteurs connexes.
Les deux dernières années de formation sont organisées en majeures et mineurs afin de construire un parcours de formation personnalisé.
Les majeures sont les suivantes :
- Opérations aériennes et sécurité (OPS)
- Systèmes avioniques (AVI)
- Systèmes Informatiques pour le Transport Aérien (SITA)
- Télécommunications Aéronautiques et Spatiales (TAS)
L’étudiant choisit une mineure par semestre parmi un large choix
Mineures issues des majeures
- Opérations aériennes et sécurité (OPS)
- Systèmes avioniques (AVI)
- Systèmes Informatiques pour le Transport Aérien (SITA)
- Télécommunications Aéronautiques et Spatiales (TAS)
Ou mineures électives à choisir parmi
Aéroports fondamentaux, Aéroports approfondissements, Economie, Econométrie et prévisions de trafic, Stratégie des entreprises dans le transport aérien, Drones, Sécurité des systèmes d’information
Informatique industrielle, Systèmes embarqués pour les transports, Futurs systèmes télécoms, Réseaux et communications aéronautiques (Master Réseaux et Télécoms), GNSS avancé (master GNSS), Optimisation appliquée au transport aérien (Master Recherche Opérationnelle), Modèle probabiliste du risque aérien
Accord de double diplôme avec : Arts et métiers ParisTech (Paris) ; Toulouse Business School (TBS).
Admission parallèle en 2e année du cycle ingénieur :
- M1 scientifique ; Dossier.
- Durée des études : 3 ans. Frais de scolarité pour la formation initiale (hors alternance) : 1306 € par an
Stage, en 1ère année, 4 à 8 semaines.
Stage, en 2e année, 14 à 18 semaines.
Stage, en 3e année, 24 à 26 semaines.
Contrat d'apprentissage possible
: 3 ans, sur les sites de Toulouse et Montpellier (Aéroport de Montpellier à Mauguio).
Accord de double diplôme avec un ou plusieurs établissement(s) étranger(s).
Aims of Aerospace Project Management Advanced Master
Aeronautical, Space and Defense business is, by nature, complex, innovative with high added value. Placed at the heart of political, economic, environmental and technological issues, in France, in Europe and worldwide, it requires a prospective vision from decision makers. It is based on specific industrial processes, characterized by long, costly and risky cycles (R &D, production, maintenance & support).
In this context, project management in aerospace environment requires mastering a wide scope of knowledge, know-how and expertise adapted to the specific needs and issues of this challenging worldwide business.
To answer to these concerns, ISAE, Ecole de l’Air and ENAC gather their expertises to develop the Aerospace Project Management (APM) advanced master.
The professionally-oriented APM advanced Master provides students with an overview on military or civil international Aerospace industry and gives up-to-date skills, cutting-edge knowledge, and necessary competences for successfully leading Project or Program teams in global aerospace and defence industry.
With an emphasis on operations, the program is designed to those beginning their career in management of projects or to professionals aiming at enhancing their competences for a fast career evolution. The program of the APM is taught, by experts or lecturers with extensive aerospace project experience, with a combination of formal presentations, inclass exercises, or study cases. The objectives of this practical approach are to provide students with current techniques and tools in project management taking into account industrials, economical or legal specificities of the Aerospace business.
The APM program offers attendees to get PMI Certifications: CAPM or PMP. In an increasingly changing world, professional certification ensures that project managers to meet the demands of space projects through the globe. By offering an additional month of training, you will be specially prepared to CAPM or PMP exams. Volunteers will have opportunity to complete the APM diploma with a PMI certification well known and appreciated through the world and which open door to success. Teachers for preparation are certified themselves and experts of PMBOK reference.
The MS ANSEO integrates the topics of the former masters by offering a systematic and global approach of the Air Navigation systems: on-ground (communication systems, navigation systems, surveillance systems, automated air traffic control systems), on-board (Satellite and avionics systems), and its operational methods (Air Traffic Management)
Aims of the MS ANSEO: Commercial air transport Business should double before 20 years according to the most realistic forecasts. Therefore ICAO, States, Authorities of the Civil aviation should anticipate and prepare technically and operationally this growth by, establishing and implementing an effective global air navigation services system, absorbing the air traffic growth by a more integrated flight management into their different phases, reducing waiting times on the ground or during flight, and implementing new optimized operational concepts for eco-effective trajectories.
Training program objectives
The new advanced master “Air Navigation Systems Engineering and Operations ", MS ANSEO, is based on a systemic approach of Air Navigation System, on an unique and integrated program with opened to three operational options: ATM, CNS/GNSS and Avionics. The MS ANSEO role is to educate new generation of Air Navigation Systems experts providing up-do-date skills and transverse knowledge to develop and operate the Air Navigation System meeting the worldwide Air Transport challenges.
Future graduates of the MS ANSEO will be qualified managers of interdisciplinary teams to develop or to improve technical Air Navigation System, whether at sub-systems level (plane, ground, management of air traffic) or at architecture system integrating interactions between these sub-systems. Thanks to their high techniques monitoring, legal and regulations awareness of the global Air Navigation System, they will be able to monitor, to optimize systems evolution, whether it is at the equipment level or at the system level, or to propose operational and technical road maps, and to define the development and operational standards.
So, whether it is for senior or for junior engineers in their first years of their professional life, the MS ANSEO will give them the best means, after their graduation, the understanding of the complexity of technical Air Navigation systems, to allow them to develop adapted solutions, to make the decisions and to take the most relevant technical and operational choice meeting their particular needs satisfying of the worldwide overall objectives.
The option "ATM" prepares future engineers for developing and improving operational efficiency of air navigation systems and air traffic management operations by a thorough knowledge of interactions between various actors of the air transport.
The option “Avionics” prepares future engineers for designing, developing, integrating or the testing, as well as for the certification or maintenance of any avionics systems, thanks to their comprehensive mastering of legal, regulatory, technically and operational associated aspects.
The option "CNS/gnss" prepares future engineers for developing technical infrastructure, implementing advanced systems ensuring air navigation services, such as communication, navigation (including GNSS) and surveillance, and in particularly the navigation systems by satellite, thanks to their comprehensive mastering of legal, regulatory, technically and operational associated aspects.
Aims of the Air Transport Management Advanced Master – MS ATM
Companies in the air transport sector have come to recognise today’s extremely competitive economic and financial climate as a fact of life, calling on them to demonstrate considerable powers of adaptability.
The “Advanced Master” Air Transport Management offers a systematic approach to air transport by examining it from the viewpoints of economy, operational working methods, marketing and financial strategies, productivity and management of human resources in airline companies, and finally the major issues and strategies of air transport in the future.
It therefore covers all the subjects which are essential for a career in the air transport field.
Professional prospects and career opportunities
The skills on which air transport companies rely are a reflection of the complexity of the operational environment, and are both numerous and specialised. However, only the major airlines can afford to recruit the many specialists in law, economics, or management whom they really need. For smaller companies, a global understanding of the air transport business is an essential requirement.
Obtaining the “Advanced Master” in Air Transport Management is a precious asset for those occupying such positions as: head of market studies, sales representative, Sales Manager, management controller, operational research engineer, line manager, Aircraft performance Analyst, Revenue management analyst, Business Manager in Aircraft Support, Country Manager, Maintenance Methods Engineer, Operations Manager, Business Manager in Aircraft Support and Operations, Pricing, Contracting and Capacity Manager, airworthiness specialist, Regional Sales Director, Inflight Commercial Manager, …
Example of employers: Airbus, Air France, Aéroport de Paris, Amadeus, Transavia, AKKA-Aeroconseil, Incheon international airport corporation, Aéroports de la Côte d'Azur SA, Worldwide Flight Services (WFS), ATR, AIR TAHITI NUI, MAP HANDLING, AIR CALIN, Sky Handling Partner, S.A.M.A.C Aéroport Aimé Césaire Martinique, AIRLINAIR, AIRBUS CIMPA PLM, AVICO, COFELY Airport Pacific, Air France‐KLM Cargo, EGSA‐Aéroport de Ghardaia Noumerte, Air France KLM Martinair Cargo, Air Calédonie, Civil Aviation Authority of Mongolia, Civil Aviation Autority of Cameroun, Flying Whales, RECAERO, Newrest,….
Aims of Airport Management Advanced Master
The Advanced Master in Airport Management was set up in 1989 by ENAC in response to requests from professionals in this field. The particularly important role played by airports within the framework of the liberalisation of air transport, the opening up of ground handling to competition, the wide range of activities involved in airport operations, the increasing importance of questions of security and environmental impact, and the competition between different airports, economic problems in general and those specific to an activity sector which today plays a major role in the national economy, are all factors which call for highly skilled managers to run and develop every airport.
The advanced master in Airport Management aims at training these specialists, so much appreciated and sought after by the airport sector.
Professional prospects and career opportunities
Training given through master program prepares students to hold the full range of positions of responsibility within airport management: operations, marketing, management, finance, human resources, Airport Safety-Compliance Monitoring Manager, Airport Consultant, Chief Operations Officer, Airport Safety Consultant…
Companies : ADP, Vinci Airport, Veolia Airport, GFC Construction, SNC-Lavalin, Infraero Brazil, various National Airports, AKKA-Aeroconseil, Régie des Voies Aérienne de RDC, Société des Aéroports de Mauritanie, Aéroport de Lyon, Egis Avia. Civil Aviation Authority of Cameroun, Airport Authority of India, Skyguide, Group City One …
Aims of the Advanced master Aviation Safety - Aircraft Airworthiness in partnerships with ISAE and Ecole de l’Air
Aircraft airworthiness, nowadays a fundamental part of Aviation Safety, is a permanent concerns of engineers, managers in aerospace and aviation industry all along the life cycle of aircraft: design manufacturing, operations and maintenance.
In 2003, the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA), was established and have undertaken the full regulatory role, instead of national authorities, including airworthiness and safety. Under this central safety body, organisation and regulatory of safety in civil aviation have seen significant changes toward greater efficiently, coherence and proof of compliance with regulations.
The Master in Aviation Safety – Aircraft Airworthiness covers both the technical aspects of certification and the legal or economic implications. This course has been designed to give future managers a broad understanding of the issues and priorities which have an international dimension. Air transport deregulation and the development of a global economy necessarily imply an increase in vigilance on behalf of both the regulatory authorities and the industry. Progress regarding safety has been constant. In the last 20 years, the accident rate per flight hour has been reduced by a factor of 10. This is becoming insufficient due to the considerable increase in traffic. Current trends should encourage us to make even more improvements, and this necessarily involves training.
The Master in Aircraft Airworthiness will provide future operators with the key to success in times to come. The Master offered by ENAC, SAE and Air Force Academy takes advantage of the excellent relations of third institutions with leading companies in the aerospace and aviation industry, civil and defence, in Europe and world-wide.
This master is specifically relevant to engineers who expect careers in airworthiness and safety field, either in aerospace industry, or regulatory authority, or in airline, or in MRO industry..
Skills acquired after the completion of the MS ASAA:
• Knowledge of International and EU bodies and regulations related to Aircraft Airworthiness
• Capability to managed Aviation Safety issues.
Main type of expected positions
• Type Certification: competences to check and to demonstrate that a new product (Aircraft, engine…) is compliant with applicable requirements according approved procedures.
• Design: with a previous background or expertise on a specific system, ability to work for a design office
• Design Organisation: knowledge of applicable regulations with quality assurance concepts
• Production Organisations: ability of verifying and attesting the conformity and airworthiness of individual products
• Continued Airworthiness: competences to follow-up a product after its entry into service:
o changes/repairs approval,
o In service feed back analysis and implementation of corrective actions.
• Continuing Airworthiness: knowledge of how to maintain a product airworthy, inside a Part M or a Part 145 organisation.
• Supervision of aviation activities: control of approved organisations, compliance verifications and approvals inside an Aviation Authority.
Companies recruiting MS ASAA graduates:
AIRBUS, EADS, Air France, French Civil Aviation Authority, South African Civil Aviation Authorities, DENEL, Royal Jordanian Air Force, Malaysian Air Force, Civil Aviation Authorities of Malaysia, Taiwan Air Force, French Ministry of Defence, French Air Force, COMAC (China), AVIC (China), Ecuadorian Air Force, Civil Aviation Authorities of Colombia, Civil Aviation Authorities of Mexico…
Aims of the advanced master Safety Management System in Aviation – MS SMSA: ENAC Advanced Master MS-SMS-A is designed to train SMS managers who will lead the structural and administrative changes within their organization, moving it from reactive thinking to predictive thinking.
In an effort to reach the next level of aviation safety, international civil aviation authorities (ICAO, EASA, FAA) as well as IATA require organizations and institutions alike to implement a Safety Management System (SMS) for the management of safety risks. The corresponding fields include: design and production of aircrafts, air operations, aeronautical maintenance, air Navigation services, airport and training organizations.
SMS represents the next step in the evolution of safety processes in the aviation industry worldwide, at the organizational level. SMS complements the requirements and regulations in human or technical safety already implemented during the past decades. SMS is the formal systemic and pro-active approach to anticipating and managing safety risk, as well as to initiating and achieving the necessary transformation of organizational structures, accountabilities, policies, procedures, standard practices and regulations. SMS is a structured process that requires organizations to apprehend possible safety issues with the same level of priority that other core business topics are managed, and to continuously analyze them, in conjunction with state institutions within their State Safety Program (SSP), as well as with their industry counterparts.
The objective is to provide future SMS managers with the fundamentals of how to systematically monitor and improve aviation safety using the Safety Management System described in ANNEX 19 of the ICAO Convention. This program enables applicants to acquire a practical expertise in the development, implementation, assessment and improvement of SMS and SSP. The courses cover all of the aspects of SMS concepts, processes, methods and operational management, either cross-domain or specific to the organization. The courses are specifically engineered to address both executive as well as working levels, to consider the entire gamut of aviation organizations (aircraft operator, manufacturer, maintenance organization, airport operator, air navigation service provider, training organization) and to cover the interactions between all of these organizations.
At soft skills level, the program emphasises the necessity of enhancing or improving the organization safety culture, through a transformation of leadership, management and employees attitudes. The master SMS-A gives trainees the capacity to develop, implement and grow all of the above mentioned aspects of a SMS in any aviation organization they work in. Furthermore, they will be able to make critical assessments of professional safety management practices and systematically deal with complex problems.
The ENAC Advanced Master in Aviation Safety Management System is designed for current or future SMS managers in charge of the development, deployment, or improvement of SMS in organizations that must comply with ICAO safety requirements.
Civil Aviation Authorities:
• Safety Director or Manager
• Safety Performance Manager
• SSP (State Safety Program) Manager
• Responsible for SMS certification and approval
Industry and operators (Aircraft operator, Aircraft Manufacturer, Approved MRO Organization, Airport operator, Air Navigation Service Provider, Approved Training Organization):
• Safety Director or Manager
• SMS (Safety Management System) Manager
• Safety Investigations Manager
• Safety Analysis Manager
Aims of Advanced Master Unmanned Aircraft Systems Services and Management – MS UASSM
UAVs, Drones are nowadays essential and unavoidable component of civil aviation activities. Needs of the various actors, operators, major purchasers, manufacturers or legislators, have evolved considerably. This fast evolution faces numerous challenges: encouraging UAVs development and their new applications while ensuring an optimal level of safety of air transport.
Wishing to take up this challenge, Enac, the first European Aviation School, innovates by creating this new UASSM master to allow its students to acquire all skills to future professionals of this promising business sector. ENAC benefits of its long history in education and research. Particularly ENAC research program "UAVs Systems” addresses UAV’s integration in global Air Traffic, as well as in their applications. Air transport, surveillance, goods transportation, agriculture domain, defence industry as well as the energy sector are seeking experts in the new technology and its management.
ENAC Advanced Master Unmanned Aircraft Systems Services and Management gives students key tools and techniques to understand the technology while ensuring the transformation of upcoming challenges into opportunities. Graduates of MS UASSM will be able to grasp "UAVs System sector as a whole.
UAV’s manufacturers: MS UASSM graduates intend to integrate their design teams. They will bring their technical and operational skills to offer solutions that are perfectly suited to the needs of operators and in compliance with all regulatory requirements.
UAV’s Operators: MS UASSM graduates will establish company's strategy in relation to "UAvs" activity, conduct economic studies, study needs, and develop the best technical and operational solutions, Preparation, execution and / or counting of missions.
Civilian drones also operate in the air transport regulatory bodies. Civil aviation authorities have an increased need for experts to drive regulatory developments and ensure their proper implementation in order to maintain the optimum level of air transport safety.
For future entrepreneurs, this Advanced Master will provide graduates all the necessary technical skills to master the field as well as all fundamental knowledge in terms of business management and market analysis.
These future managers acquire transversal skills throughout the MS UASSM that allow them to listen to the potential needs of the market and to make the right strategic choices to place their business at the best level and to face a global competition successfully.
ENAC has developed this Advanced Master in close partnership with major users of UAVs such as AIRBUS, SAFRAN, THALES, RTE, SNCF, ENGIE, BOUYGUES, ADP Group, Delair-Tech, Airborne Concept,…
Aims of the Master of Science Aerospace System Navigation and Telecommunications MSc ASNAT: The SESAR project (Single European Sky ATM Research), which will substantially change the way air traffic management in Europe, aims at developing the new generation of air traffic management system capable of ensuring the safety and fluidity of air transport worldwide over the next 30 years, Within this program ENAC is contributing on research and training of future experts for the improvement of ATM infrastructure.
Particularly European Union and GNSS Agency asked ENAC to develop this Master of Science in Global Navigation and Satellite System to offer industries, agencies and authorities experts in this area.
Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) have gained a lot of worldwide attention due to a significant increase in applications using GPS for positioning and navigation (aeronautics, vehicular and pedestrian navigation, location-based services, etc). This international enthusiasm is confirmed by the worldwide development of other global and regional satellite-based navigation systems in Europe, the USA, China, Russia, India and Japan, creating a strong need for experts in this field. The objective of this MSc in GNSS is to provide students with advanced skills and knowledge in the field of GNSS and its related applications, in order to prepare them to enter the highly dynamic GNSS and GNSS-dependent industry. In addition, the students have training in telecommunications, as both fields are strongly complementary.
Finally, It aims at training students for the growing ATM industry worldwide, with high demands related to SESAR (Europe) and the NextGen (US) programs. Furthermore, the MSc GNSS is supported by several companies and international organisms: Thales Alenia Space, ISMB, GMV (Spain), IC GNSS,…
According to some studies from E.U, it is expecting for about 200.000 jobs the field of ATM new generation in Europe and USA.
Main research domains developed in this field
GNSS for Civil Aviation (Integrity monitoring, Hybridization, Interference mitigation, Receiver processing, Airport navigation)
GNSS Signal, Payload and Receiver Design
Urban Navigation (High sensitivity, Hybridization, Integrity, Precise Positioning, Use of signals of opportunity)
Aims of the Master Aerospace - International Air Transport Operations Management: The master IATOM is a four-semester international program to meet global aeronautical and aviation industry needs. MSc IATOM is designed to emphasize the application of up-to-date engineering and management concepts or methods of aeronautical and aviation industry. The full-time two-year master IATOM aims at providing technical and management expertise necessary to a future manager in international company. The Master IATOM provides graduates with in-depth knowledge in aeronautical operations engineering, IT Tools, aeronautical project management, certification, airworthiness and maintenance. MSc IATOM aims at offering the air transport industry with innovative and adaptable engineers to satisfy the competitive demands, to strengthen and develop their global business. The Master IATOM gives a comprehensive teaching program with scientific background, aeronautical and aviation engineering, operations, legal, social environment, economy and project management enabling graduates to get junior management position in aeronautical industry, airlines, airports or civil aviation authorities. Actually project management is the backbone of the master IATOM program.
ENAC with its international partners - Hong Kong University of Science Technology (HKUST), Beihang University in China, University of Science and Technology Hanoi (USTH), Institut Teknology Bandung in Indonesia and Nanyang Technology University Singapore, have developed two teaching tracks. After a common scientific and engineering fundamental semester delivered by all partners, attendees join ENAC to select one study track during semesters two and three:
- ACOM – Aircraft Certification, Operations and Maintenance
- EMAO – Economics, Management and Aircraft Operations
Career opportunities: IATOM graduates integrate aircraft manufacturers, consulting companies, airlines, airports at various positions, such as: flight operations engineer, flight safety engineer, aircraft performance engineer, Maintenance manager, airlines operations planning, marketing manager, Customer Support Engineer, Project Manager Final Assembly Line of aircraft, Product Definition Analyst in Airlines Inventory, Cabin Certification Writer, Surveillance Part 21 J Manager, Airport Compatibility Engineer, Joint Ventures & Business Development Controlling, Route Analyst, Business Analyst Manager, Flight analyst / Revenue management, Pricing & Capacity manager, Contracting & Business Development Manager, Research And Development Engineer, Airport planning engineer, Strategy & Innovation Consultant, Flight Safety Support Engineer, Sales and Account Manager, Procurement Manager,…
Aims of the MSc International Air Transport System Engineering and Design – MSc IATSED
Air transport market has increased considerably involving multidisciplinary constraints and objectives to become a complex system of systems – aircraft design, manufacturing, airlines operations, integrated Air Traffic Management, Airport operations, … Air transport global system needs to manage new technics development and methodologies in a fierce competition. Life cycle needs to master innovation acceleration with a huge quantity of information to be processed. Historical V-model reference in system development is progressively supplanted by Agile methods. Traditional development must be enforced by security and safety considerations. Facing all these constraints, Air transport stakeholders need polyvalent engineers competent in system design, in quick and efficient programming, in big data and machine learning.
The MSc IATSED has been developed with Air Transport industry (Egis, Cap Gemini, Airbus, Thales) to satisfy their needs and expectations in key technologies that are emerging for complex air transport’s systems and software development.
By integrating the MSc IATSED, you will receive a solid foundation of fundamental systems engineering knowledge with extensive experimentation in managing complex, multidisciplinary, advanced engineering projects thanks to the involvement of our industrial partners all along the master program: course definition, project monitoring, new technologies introduction, six-month thesis.
You will gain valuable deeper insights to manage complex engineering systems and improve future processes. Based on interdisciplinary engineering approach, the MSc IATSED makes sure you will be familiarized with international engineering concepts by direct application of international INCOSE standards. IATSED professors maintains close ties with the INCOSE community.
Vous pourrez prochainement à nouveau déposer des commentaires sur les écoles :)
Tu as déjà postulé dans cette école.Tu auras un retour rapidement de l’école concernant ta candidature. J'ai compris.
Ton dossier de candidature n’est pas complété.Tu ne peux pas candidater dans une école si ton dossier n’est pas complété à 100% COMPLETER MON DOSSIER
Merci de te créer un compte en 30 secondes pour accéder aux informations des écoles.Comment ca marche ?